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29/12/16 00:00

St Kilda census discovery

New document sheds light on UNESCO site.

A 250-year-old census showing the earliest recorded list of the population of the island of St Kilda has been discovered thanks to work by the National Records of Scotland.

The census lists 90 people living on the island on 15 June 1764, 38 males and 52 females, including 19 families and nine individuals. After listing their names, the census says that they each ate ‘36 wild fouls eggs and 18 fouls’ (seabirds) a day, an overall daily consumption of 3,240 eggs and 1,620 birds.

The document was discovered among the papers of Clan Maclachlan during cataloguing by the National Register of Archives for Scotland (NRAS), the branch of the National Records of Scotland which holds historical papers held in private hands in Scotland.

It is not known exactly why the census was taken, or by whom, but it is likely it was made to contribute to a wider report on the Hebrides.

Until now, the oldest known record of the population dated from 1822. As the later document included ages, it is possible to track five residents of St Kilda who appeared on both censuses, 52 years apart. The 1764 census also includes the ancestors of the final five families to be evacuated from the island in 1930, the MacQueens, Fergusons, Gillies, MacDonalds and MacKinnons.

Dr Alison Rosie, Registrar of the National Register of Archives for Scotland, said:

“This document sheds new light on the history of St Kilda and the families who lived there, and gives us an insight into their lives more than 250 years ago.

“Through it we can trace individuals back 50 years earlier than the next surviving census, and many of the people listed were the ancestors of the families who left the island in 1930.

“One of the most fascinating aspects of working for the National Register of Archives for Scotland, which celebrates its 70th birthday this year, is the potential for discovering new and exciting documents like this, often in unexpected places, and then drawing them to the attention of historians and the public.”

Donald Maclauchlan of Clan Maclachlan said:

“The document was found as part of a hoard of papers – around 13 large boxes. When I heard from Charlie Maclachlan of Maclachlan the younger that they had been found, I asked to see some of them and the first document I pulled out dated from 1590. I realised the time had come to call in the professionals.

“The team from NRAS had the papers spread out all over the dining room of Castle Lachlan – which is not a small room – and went through them, gasping a bit, before explaining that they would need more than an afternoon to evaluate them, boxing them back up and taking them away. A year and half’s study produced a 79-page catalogue of everything we have.

“There’s some very interesting material about Clan Maclachlan history in there, of which this St Kilda document is just one part.”

Culture Secretary Fiona Hyslop said:

“Many people are fascinated by the history of St Kilda, and this census gives us a new insight into the history of the island and its people, which will now be available to researchers thanks to the work of National Records of Scotland.

“Discoveries like these add great depth to our culture and heritage, helping us to understand more about our nation’s story.”

 

Background

  1. Further information on the document, its origins and the history of St Kilda are available in this document. Pictures of the newly discovered document, as well as pictures of life on St Kilda, are available. An audio recording of Dr Rosie is also available.
  2. The National Register of Archives for Scotland (NRAS) is part of the National Records of Scotland (NRS) and was formed in 1946 to compile a record of collections of private papers in Scotland, to encourage their care, and to make information about them available to researchers and others. You can read more about NRAS here https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/record-keeping/national-register-of-archives-for-scotland and about NRS here: https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/about-us
  3. St Kilda was evacuated in 1930 and the remaining inhabitants settled on the mainland. It is now a UNESCO world heritage site. You can read more about the history of St Kilda on National Records of Scotland’s website here https://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/research/learning/features/stories-from-st-kilda, and on our ScotlandsPeople website here: https://www.scotlandspeople.gov.uk/article/last-households-st-kilda
  4. For more information about the Clan Maclachlan and Old Castle Lachlan visit http://www.oldcastlelachlan.com/
     

Contact

Dr Alison Rosie will be available for interivew on Wednesday 28 December. To arrange, contact Ross Truslove 0131 535 1382

Downloads

st kilda best clothes: St Kildan women, dressed in their best clothes for the benefit of visitors off the SS ‘Hebrides’, c1913
National Records of Scotland, GD1/713/1

st kilda best clothes

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St Kilda census transcript

St Kilda census transcript

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St Kilda Christina Ann McQueen: Christina Ann McQueen (centre), daughter of Finlay McQueen, outside the factor’s house, St Kilda, c1913
National Records of Scotland, GD1/713/1

St Kilda Christina Ann McQueen

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st kilda ferry boat: A St Kildan ferry boat, c1913
National Records of Scotland, GD1/713/1

st kilda ferry boat

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st kildans with soay sheep

st kildans with soay sheep

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Background on New St Kilda Census

Background on New St Kilda Census

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Copy of census document (front)

Copy of census document (front)

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Copy of census document (reverse)

Copy of census document (reverse)

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Dr Alison Rosie NRS

Dr Alison Rosie NRS

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Effie (Eupham) McCrimon: Effie (Eupham) McCrimon, ‘a reverend St Kildean of 80’, 1860. It’s likely that Effie was the daughter of Donald McCrumun, listed on the 1764 Census. We know her parents were Donald McCrimon and Kate McKinnon, and variant spellings were common at the time. Effie was born around 1781, so it’s possible her mother was not yet born in 1764 which is why she was not listed. Effie died in 1869 aged 88. In a list of the inhabitants in 1841, she was described as ‘Euphemia Macrimmon, an old maid’, who was living with her niece (James Wilson, ‘A voyage round the coasts of Scotland and the Isles’ (Edinburgh 1842), vol. II, page 18) In 1860, Effie was one of about half of the 78 inhabitants of St Kilda who were photographed by Captain F W L Thomas RN, commander of HMS Porcupine. Courtesy of the WS Society, NRS, GD492/12/6.

Effie (Eupham) McCrimon

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